Chemical fiber soft|What are the classifications of textile softeners

Softener is a kind of auxiliary agent with more varieties and larger dosage in dyeing and finishing auxiliary agents. According to its chemical structure, there are basically two types of long-chain aliphatic or high molecular polymers. The long-chain aliphatic softeners in the molecular structure of the hydrocarbon long chain can be irregularly arranged in a crimped state, forming molecular flexibility, and the flexible molecules adsorb on the fiber surface to play a lubricating role, reducing the fiber and The dynamic and static friction coefficient of the fiber. 
1. Anionic softener 
In addition to soap, sulfonated oil, etc., the anionic softener is mainly composed of cationic compounds or anionic and nonionic compounds with long chain alkanes such as stearyl succinate sodium sulfonate and stearyl ester sulfate. Generally, it has good wettability and thermal stability, can be used in the same bath with fluorescent whitening agent, and can be used as a softener for extra-white fabrics. It is also more suitable for cellulose fibers, which can give fabrics better water absorption, but its absorption of fibers is similar to that of direct dyes, and is relatively weak, so the softening effect is poor and it is easy to be washed away. In addition, because it has a softening effect in the bath, it can be used for silk scouring to prevent scratches (grey scratches). 

2. Non-ionic softener
Non-ionic softeners are generally polyoxyethylene esters (or ethers) of decaacid (or alcohol), pentaerythritol, or fatty esters of sorbitan. Since non-ionic softeners have poorer absorption to fibers than ionic softeners, they can only have a smoothing effect. However, it can be used in combination with ionic softeners, has good compatibility with other materials, has good electrolyte stability, and does not have the disadvantage of yellowing the fabric. It can be used as a non-durable soft finishing agent, and can also be used as a synthetic fiber spinning oil. An important part of the agent. Some of its products can be used as silk-like finishing agents for the "silk sound" of fabrics. 

3. Cationic softener 
There are many kinds of softeners of this kind, and they are the most commonly used softeners at present. Mainly because most fibers have a negative charge in water, cationic softeners are easily adsorbed on the surface of the fibers, have strong binding ability, can withstand high temperature, wash, and the fabric is plump and smooth after finishing, which can improve the wear resistance and wear resistance of the fabric. It has a strong tearing force and has a certain antistatic effect on synthetic fibers. Therefore, it is widely used in cotton, nylon, acrylic and other fabrics, and this variety is also suitable for silk. However, some cationic softeners are prone to yellowing at high temperatures, accompanied by a decrease in light fastness. The cationic softener is generally a derivative of octadecylamine or dimethyloctadecylamine or a condensate of stearic acid and polyvinyl polyamine. According to its structure, it can be divided into tertiary amine softener, quaternary ammonium softener, imidazoline quaternary ammonium softener, dialkyl dimethyl quaternary ammonium softener, etc.

4. Amphoteric softener
Amphoteric softeners are a type of softener developed to improve cationic softeners. It has a strong affinity for synthetic fibers, and has no disadvantages such as yellowing and discoloration of dyes. It can also be used in the re-training process of silk to make the silk feel better. Amphoteric softeners can also be used together with cationic softeners to play a synergistic effect. Such softeners are generally of alkylamine lactone type structure.

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